Astronomia - Galaxias


Galaxia NGC1316

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Press Release
Id: opo0511a
Object: NGC 1316, IRAS 03208-3723
Type: Galaxy
Instrument: ACS

Hubble Spies Cosmic Dust Bunnies

Like dust bunnies that lurk in corners and under beds, surprisingly complex loops and blobs of cosmic dust lie hidden in the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316.

This image made from data obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope reveals the dust lanes and star clusters of this giant galaxy that give evidence that it was formed from a past merger of two gas-rich galaxies.

Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Galaxia NGC2207

Galaxia NGC 2207 - encontro de duas galaxias aspiral

Id: opo9941a
Object: NGC 2207, IRAS 06142-2121
Type: Galaxy
Instrument: WFPC2

A Grazing Encounter Between two Spiral Galaxies

In the direction of the constellation Canis Major, two spiral galaxies pass by each other like majestic ships in the night.

The near-collision has been caught in images taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and its Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI) Galaxia NGC3314

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Press Release
Id: opo0014a
Object: NGC 3314, IRAS 10348-2725
Type: Galaxy
Instrument: WFPC2

Galactic Silhouettes

Through an extraordinary chance alignment, the Hubble telescope has captured a view of a face-on spiral galaxy lying precisely in front of another larger spiral.

The unique pair is called NGC 3314.

This line-up provides astronomers with the rare chance to see the dark material within the foreground galaxy, seen only because it is silhouetted against the light from the object behind it.

NGC 3314 lies about 140 million light-years from Earth in the direction of the southern hemisphere constellation Hydra.

This picture is one of many produced by the Hubble Heritage Program, created 1-1/2 years ago to publicly release some of the best celestial views taken by the telescope's visible-light camera.

Now, the International Center of Photography in New York City has rewarded the program for its work with the annual Infinity Award for Applied Photography.

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Galaxia NGC3370

Id: opo0324a
Object: NGC 3370, IRAS 10444+1732
Type: Galaxy
Instrument: ACS

Celestial Composition

Amid a backdrop of far-off galaxies, the majestic dusty spiral, NGC 3370, looms in the foreground in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope image.

Recent observations taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys show intricate spiral arm structure spotted with hot areas of new star formation.

But this galaxy is more than just a pretty face. Nearly 10 years earlier NGC 3370, in the constellation Leo, hosted a bright exploding star.

In November 1994, the light of a supernova in nearby NGC 3370 reached Earth.

This stellar outburst briefly outshone all of the tens of billions of other stars in its galaxy.

Although supernovae are common, with one exploding every few seconds somewhere in the universe, this one was special.

Designated SN 1994ae, this supernova was one of the nearest and best observed supernovae since the advent of modern, digital detectors.

It resides 98 million light-years (30 megaparsecs) from Earth.

The supernova was also a member of a special subclass of supernovae, the type Ia, the best tool astronomers have to chart the growth rate of the expanding universe.

Credit: NASA/ESA, The Hubble Heritage Team and A. Riess (STScI) Galaxia NGC4013

Edge-On View of NGC 4013

Id: opo0107a
Object: NGC 4013
Type: Galaxy
Instrument: WFPC2

Edge-On View of NGC 4013

The Hubble telescope has snapped this remarkable view of a perfectly 'edge-on' galaxy, NGC 4013.

This new Hubble picture reveals with exquisite detail huge clouds of dust and gas extending along, as well as far above, the galaxy's main disk.

NGC 4013 is a spiral galaxy, similar to our Milky Way, lying some 55 million light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Ursa Major.

Viewed face-on, it would look like a nearly circular pinwheel, but NGC 4013 happens to be seen edge-on from our vantage point.

Even at 55 million light-years, the galaxy is larger than Hubble's field of view, and the image shows only a little more than half of the object, albeit with unprecedented detail.

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Galaxia NGC4414

Id........: opo9925a
Object....: NGC 4414, IRAS 12239+3129
Type......: Galaxy
Instrument: WFPC2

In 1995, the majestic spiral galaxy NGC 4414 was imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the HST Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale.

An international team of astronomers, led by Dr. Wendy Freedman of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, observed this galaxy on 13 different occasions over the course of two months.

Images were obtained with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) through three different color filters.

Based on their discovery and careful brightness measurements of variable stars in NGC 4414, the Key Project astronomers were able to make an accurate determination of the distance to the galaxy.

Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA/ESA) Galaxia NGC4650A

Id: opo9916a
Object: NGC 4650A, The Polar Ring Galaxy
Type: Galaxy
Instrument: WFPC2

Ring Around NGC 4650A

Space Telescope Science Institute astronomers are giving the public chances to decide where to aim the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope.

Guided by 8, 000 Internet voters, Hubble has already been used to take a close-up, multi-color picture of the most popular object from a list of candidates, the extraordinary 'polar-ring' galaxy NGC 4650A.

Located about 130 million light-years away, NGC 4650A is one of only 100 known polar-ring galaxies.

Their unusual disk-ring structure is not yet understood fully.

One possibility is that polar rings are the remnants of colossal collisions between two galaxies sometime in the distant past, probably at least 1 billion years ago.

What is left of one galaxy has become the rotating inner disk of old red stars in the center.

Credit: The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA/ESA) Galaxia NGC4676


Id........: heic0206b
Object....: Mice interacting galaxies, NGC 4676
Type......: Galaxy
Instrument: ACS

The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), the newest camera on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, has captured a spectacular pair of galaxies engaged in a celestial dance of cat and mouse or, in this case, mouse and mouse.

Located 300 million light-years away in the constellation Coma Berenices, the colliding galaxies have been nicknamed "The Mice" because of the long tails of stars and gas emanating from each galaxy.

Otherwise known as NGC 4676, the pair will eventually merge into a single giant galaxy.

Credit: NASA, Holland Ford (JHU), the ACS Science Team and ESA Galaxia NGC5194 - M51

A large, bright spiral galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici that is interacting with a much smaller neighbor, NGC 5195. The main galaxy was discovered by Charles Messier in 1773, the companion by Pierre Méchain in 1781.

M51 is the first galaxy in which spiral structure was discovered, by Lord Rosse in 1845. This structure, however, has clearly been influenced by the gravitational effect of the companion, which has triggered a huge burst of star formation in the Whirlpool and has also distorted its arms.

M51 is the dominant member of a small group of galaxies that also includes the Sunflower Galaxy (M63) and half a dozen other smaller systems.

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Galaxia NGC6751 - Olho de gato

April 6, 2000: The Hubble telescope has spied a giant celestial [eye], known as planetary nebula NGC 6751. The Hubble Heritage Project is releasing this picture to commemorate the Hubble telescopes tenth anniversary.

Glowing in the constellation Aquila, the nebula is a cloud of gas ejected several thousand years ago from the hot star visible in its center. Planetary nebulae have nothing to do with planets.

They are shells of gas thrown off by Sun-like stars nearing the ends of their lives. The stars loss of its outer, gaseous layers exposes the hot stellar core, whose strong ultraviolet radiation then causes the ejected gas to fluoresce as the planetary nebula.

Credit: Galaxia NGC7331

About the Object Object Name: NGC 7331
Object Type: Spiral Galaxy
Position (J2000): RA: 22h37m04s Dec: +34d24m56s
Distance: 49,000,000 light-years or 15 Mpc
Magnitude: 10.35
Constellation: Pegasus

About the Data Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/J.D. Smith (Univ. of Arizona), Michael Regan (STScI), and the SINGS Team (PI: Robert Kennicutt (Univ. of Arizona))

Instrument: IRAC
Wavelength: 3.6 (blue), 4.5 (blue-green), 5.6 (yellow), 8.0 (red) microns

Exposure Dates: December 2-3, 2003
Exposure Time: 240 seconds per pixel
Image Scale: 12.6 x 8.2 arcmin
Orientation: North is 101 degrees CCW from up
Release Date: June 28, 2004

Credit: Galaxia M17 - Tadpole

News Release - heic0206: Hubble's Advanced Camera unveils a panoramic new view of the Universe

30-Apr-2002: Jubilant astronomers today unveiled humankind's most spectacular views of the Universe as captured by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's new Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). They also reported that Hubble is operating superbly since the March servicing mission and are looking forward to more pictures from the newly revived NICMOS camera.

'The ACS is opening a wide new window onto the Universe. These are among the best images of the distant Universe humans have ever seen,' says Johns Hopkins University astronomer Holland Ford, the lead scientist in the ACS' seven-year development. 'The ACS will let us obtain the deepest image of the Universe for the foreseeable future,' added astronomer Garth Illingworth, the deputy leader for the ACS.

The camera's tenfold increase in efficiency will open up much anticipated new 'discovery space' for Hubble. 'ACS will allow us to push back the frontier of the early Universe. We will be able to enter the 'twilight zone' period when galaxies were just beginning to form out of the blackness following the cooling of the Universe from the Big Bang,' says Ford.

Among the suite of four 'suitable for framing' ACS science demonstration pictures released today is a stunning view of a colliding galaxy, dubbed the 'Tadpole', located 420 million light-years away. Unlike textbook images of stately galaxies, the 'Tadpole' with a long tidal tail of stars, looks like a runaway pinwheel firework. It captures the essence of our dynamic, restless and violent Universe.

But what came as an unexpected bonus is the enormous number of galaxies behind the Tadpole galaxy - as many as 6000, twice the number in the legendary Hubble Deep Field (HDF) in 1995. Amazingly, the ACS picture was taken in one-twelfth the time it took for the original HDF, and in blue light nit shows even fainter objects than the HDF. Like the HDF, the galaxies stretch back to nearly the beginning of time and contain myriad shapes that are snapshots of galaxies throughout the Universe's 13 billion-year evolution.

The ACS images are so sharp astronomers can identify 'building blocks' of galaxies, colliding galaxies, an exquisite 'Whitman's Sampler' of galaxies, and extremely distant galaxies in the field. The ACS image of the Tadpole illustrates the dramatic gains over the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 that were expected from doubling the area and resolution, and five times improvement in sensitivity.

The other pictures include a stunning collision between two spiral galaxies - dubbed [the Mice] - that presage what may happen to our own Milky Way several billion years in the future when it collides with the neighbouring galaxy in the constellation Andromeda. Computer simulations made by J. Barnes and J. Hibbard show that we are seeing the collision of the Mice approximately 160 million years after their closest encounter. Running the simulations forward in time shows that the two galaxies will eventually merge, forming an elliptical-like galaxy. A similar fate may await the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy.

Looking closer to home, ACS imaged the Cone Nebula, a craggy-looking mountaintop of cold gas and dust that is a cousin to Hubble's iconic 'pillars of creation' in the Eagle Nebula, photographed in 1995.

Peering into a celestial maternity ward called the Swan Nebula (M17), the ACS revealed a watercolour fantasy-world tapestry of vivid colours and glowing ridges of gas. Embedded in this crucible of star creation are embryonic planetary systems.

Mounted aboard the world's premier optical-ultraviolet telescope, the ACS is a camera of superlatives. It is expected to go beyond the sensitivity of the largest ground-based telescope to eventually see the very faintest objects ever. Its camera delivers a panoramic crispness comparable to that of a wide-screen IMAX movie, a staggering 16 million picture elements (megapixels) per snapshot (typical consumer cameras are 2 to 4 megapixels).

Notes for editors:
The ACS Science Team consists of: H. Ford, G. Illingworth, M. Clampin, G. Hartig, T. Allen, K. Anderson, F. Bartko, N. Benitez, J. Blakeslee, R. Bouwens, T. Broadhurst, R. Brown, C. Burrows, D. Campbell, E. Cheng, N.Cross, P. Feldman, M. Franx, D. Golimowski, C. Gronwall, R. Kimble, J. Krist, M. Lesser, D. Magee, A. Martel, W.J. McCann, G. Meurer, G. Miley, M. Postman, P.Rosati, M. Sirianni, W. Sparks, P.Sullivan, H. Tran, Z. Tsvetanov, R. White and R. Woodruff
This news release is issued jointly by ESA (Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre) and NASA (STScI/Office of Public Outreach).

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. Galaxia M31 - Andrômeda

Objeto celeste mais distante que pode ser visto a olho nu.

A Galáxia de Andrômeda, também chamada de M31, é uma galáxia espiral similar a Via Láctea.

Ela aparece como uma mancha ovalada de lua na constelaĉ&aatilde;o de Andrâmeda.

As observações desta galáxia revelam que ela se situa a aproximadamente 2,1 milhões de anos-luz da Terra e contém 300 milhões de estrelas.

Imagens desta galáxia mostram que nela há faixas claras e escuras, aglomerados e supernovas.

A Galáxia de Andrômeda possui diversas galáxias satélites simulares às Nuvens de Magalhães.

A Galáxia de Andrômeda, a Via Láctea, e outras galáxias menores pertencem a um aglomerado chamado Grupo Local.

O significado do nome á [a dama acorrentada], [a princesa]; a filha de Cassiopéia na mitologia.

A Galáxia NGC 205, considerada um satélite de Andrômeda, está na parte inferior. Galaxia M104 - Sombrero

Id........: opo0328a
Type......: Galaxy
Instrument: ACS

Hubble Mosaic of the Majestic Sombrero Galaxy

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has trained its razor-sharp eye on one of the universe's most stately and photogenic galaxies, the Sombrero galaxy, Messier 104 (M104).

The galaxy's hallmark is a brilliant white, bulbous core encircled by the thick dust lanes comprising the spiral structure of the galaxy.

As seen from Earth, the galaxy is tilted nearly edge-on.

We view it from just six degrees north of its equatorial plane.

This brilliant galaxy was named the Sombrero because of its resemblance to the broad rim and high-topped Mexican hat.

At a relatively bright magnitude of +8, M104 is just beyond the limit of naked-eye visibility and is easily seen through small telescopes.

The Sombrero lies at the southern edge of the rich Virgo cluster of galaxies and is one of the most massive objects in that group, equivalent to 800 billion suns.

The galaxy is 50,000 light-years across and is located 28 million light-years from Earth.

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Galaxia C153

Artist's View Galaxy of C153 in Abell 2125

Credit: NASA/ESA Galaxia ESO510 G13 - Twister

Id: opo0123a
Object: ESO 510-G13
Type: Galaxy
Instrument: WFPC2

The Hubble telescope has captured an image of an unusual edge-on galaxy, revealing remarkable details of its warped dusty disk and showing how colliding galaxies spawn the formation of new generations of stars.

The dust and spiral arms of normal spiral galaxies, like our own Milky Way, appear flat when viewed edge-on.

This Hubble Heritage image of ESO 510-G13 shows a galaxy that, by contrast, has an unusual twisted disk structure, first seen in ground-based photographs.

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Grupo de galaxias

Related News
Id: heic0007b
Object: Stephan's Quintet, NGC 7317, NGC 7318A, NGC 7318B, NGC 7319, NGC 7320, HCG 92
Type: Galaxy
Instrument: WFPC2

Stephan's Quintet - A Mammoth Cosmic Collision (Hubble view)

This spectacular new image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope of the group of galaxies called Stephan's Quintet has provided a detailed view of one of the most exciting star forming regions in the local Universe.

Stephan's Quintet is a favoured object for amateur astronomers and has earned a reputation as a challenging target for good hobby telescopes.

The quintet is a prototype of a class of objects known as compact groups of galaxies and has been studied intensively for decades.

This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is a close-up view of the central part of Stephan's Quintet, giving a magnificent view of a gigantic cosmic collision.

Weird, highly distorted features, dust lanes crossing between galaxies and long filaments of stars and gas extending far beyond the central regions all suggest galaxies twisted by violent encounters.

The galaxies float through space, distorted shapes moulded by tidal interactions, weaving together in the intricate figures of an immense cosmic dance, choreographed by gravity.

This image comes from the large archive of scientific observations performed with the Hubble Space Telescope.

It is a mosaic of two pointings with the WFPC2 instrument made in December 1998 and June 1999.

The natural-colour composite has been constructed by the Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre from individual exposures in red light (814W filter, 2000 seconds), in green light (569W filter, 3200 seconds) and in blue light (450W filter, 6800 seconds).

The image measures 3.7 x 2.5 arc-minute

Credit: ESA Galaxia Iron

Galaxia Iron, dispersada por uma supernova

Id: heic0306a
Object: Iron dispersed by supernova in the early Universe Type: Galaxy, Quasar/AGN/Black Hole, Drawing, Nebula

Finding the ashes of the first stars [artist's impression]

Artist's impression of a quasar located in a primeval galaxy (or protogalaxy) a few hundred million years after the Big Bang.

Astronomers used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to discover substantial amount of iron in three such quasars.

This is the first time that anyone has found elements believed to have been created exclusively by the first generation of stars.

Information about the very first generation of stars has been one of the Universe's best-kept secrets.

When the first stars ended their lives as supernovae, the explosions expelled gas into space.

These 'ashes' contained heavier elements such as oxygen, carbon, silicon, and iron created in the nuclear furnaces within the centres of stars.

This new discovery allows astronomers to construct a revised timescale for the history of the Universe.

About 13.7 thousand million years ago, the Universe is created in the Big Bang.

In this cataclysmic hot explosion, hydrogen and helium are almost the only substances present.

As the gases cool, the Universe becomes transparent and the gases start to gather.

After 200 million years, the first generation of stars form.

About 500 to 800 million years later, these first stars explode as supernovae, dispersing elements like iron and other elements into the surroundings.

The new observations suggest that the first stars formed before the supermassive black holes that power the quasar engines in the centres of galaxies.

The light from the quasars has travelled for 12.8 thousand million years before reaching Hubble and had left the quasars only 900 million years after the Big Bang.

Credit: European Space Agency and Wolfram Freudling (Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility/European Southern Observatory, Germany)