Astronomia - Nebulosas

 NGC2080 - Cabeça de fantansma

Nebulosa NGC 2080
Id: heic0114a / opo0134a
Object: Nebula NGC 2080, 'Ghost Head Nebula'
Type: Nebula
Instrument: WFPC2

Nebula NGC 2080, nicknamed the 'Ghost Head Nebula'

The 'Ghost Head Nebula' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

Two bright regions (the 'eyes of the ghost'), named A1 (left) and A2 (right), are very hot, glowing `blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen.

The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from a single massive star.

A2 has a more complex appearance due to the presence of more dust, and it contains several hidden, massive stars.

The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10 000 years since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newly born stars.

Credit: ESA, NASA, & Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Observatoire de Paris, France) NGC6537 - Aranha vermelha

Id: heic0109a
Object: The Red Spider Nebula, NGC 6537
Type: Nebula
Instrument: WFPC2

The Red Spider Nebula: Surfing in Sagittarius not for the faint-hearted!

Credit: ESA & Garrelt Mellema (Leiden University, the Netherlands) HEIC0111 - Calabash Nebula, Rotten Egg Nebula

Id: heic0111a
Object: Calabash Nebula, Rotten Egg Nebula
Type: Nebula
Instrument: WFPC2

Hubble revela choque antes despercebido.
Esta nova imagem mais detalhada mostra uma nebulosa planetária em formação de outra nebulosa.

Uma estrela morrendo (escondida atrás da poeira e do gás no centro da nebulosa) ejetou quantidades maciças de gás.

As partes do gás alcançaram velocidades tremendas de até 1 milhão e meio de quilômetros por a hora.

Vemos no azul claro o hidrogênio e o nitrogênio ionizado se levantar dos choques supersonicos onde as forças formam um córrego de gás do material a sua volta.

A imagem mostra pela primeira vez estas estruturas complexas de gás que são ditos pela teoria.

A imagem de Hubble foi feita antes do natal de 2000 com o instrumento WFPC2 (campo largo e câmera planetária 2) em quatro filtros diferentes.

A luz de 791nm é indicada no vermelho (tempo da exposição 900 s), 675 nm no verde (900 s), quando a luz combinada do hidrogênio (656 nm) e os átomos ionizados do nitrogênio (658 nm) forem mostrados como o azul (14, 700 s).

"Hubble reveals previously unseen shocks

This new, detailed, Hubble image shows a planetary nebula in the making a proto-planetary nebula.
A dying star (hidden behind dust and gas in the centre of the nebula) has ejected massive amounts of gas.
Parts of the gas have reached tremendous velocities of up to one-and-a-half million kilometres per hour.

Shown in blue is light from hydrogen and ionised nitrogen arising from supersonic shocks where the gas stream rams into the surrounding material.

The image shows for the first time these complex gas structures which are predicted by theory.

The Hubble image was taken shortly before Christmas 2000 with the WFPC2 instrument (Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2) in four different filters.

Here, light from 791 nm is displayed in red (exposure time 900 s), 675 nm in green (900 s), while combined light from hydrogen (656 nm) and ionised nitrogen atoms (658 nm) are shown as blue (14, 700 s)."

Credit: ESA & Valentin Bujarrabal (Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Spain) Cone Nebula

Id........: heic0206b
Object....: Cone Nebula
Type......: Nebula
Instrument: ACS

Hubble's newest camera images ghostly star-forming pillar of gas and dust

Resembling a nightmarish beast rearing its head from a crimson sea, this celestial object is actually just a pillar of gas and dust.

Called the Cone Nebula (in NGC 2264) - so named because in ground-based images it has a conical shape - this monstrous pillar resides in a turbulent star-forming region.

This picture, taken by the newly installed Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, shows the upper 2.5 light-years of the Cone, a height that equals 23 million roundtrips to the Moon. The entire pillar is seven light-years long.

Radiation from hot, young stars (located beyond the top of the image) has slowly eroded the nebula over millions of years.

Ultraviolet light heats the edges of the dark cloud, releasing gas into the relatively empty region of surrounding space.

There, additional ultraviolet radiation causes the hydrogen gas to glow, which produces the red halo of light seen around the pillar.

A similar process occurs on a much smaller scale to gas surrounding a single star, forming the bow-shaped arc seen near the upper left side of the Cone.

This arc, seen previously with the Hubble telescope, is 65 times larger than the diameter of our Solar System.

The blue-white light from surrounding stars is reflected by dust.

Background stars can be seen peeking through the evaporating tendrils of gas, while the turbulent base is pockmarked with stars reddened by dust.

Over time, only the densest regions of the Cone will be left.

But inside these regions, stars and planets may form.

The Cone Nebula resides 2500 light-years away in the constellation Monoceros.

The Cone is a cousin of the M16 pillars, which the Hubble telescope imaged in 1995.

Consisting mainly of cold gas, the pillars in both regions resist being eroded away by the blistering ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars.

Pillars like the Cone and M16 are common in large regions of star birth.

Astronomers believe that these pillars may be incubators for developing stars.

The ACS made this observation on 2 April 2002.

The colour image is constructed from three separate images taken in blue, near-infrared, and hydrogen-alpha filters.

Image credit: NASA, the ACS Science Team (H. Ford, G. Illingworth,
M. Clampin, G. Hartig, T. Allen, K. Anderson, F. Bartko,
N. Benitez, J. Blakeslee, R. Bouwens, T. Broadhurst, R. Brown, C. Burrows, D. Campbell, E. Cheng, N. Cross, P. Feldman, M. Franx,
D. Golimowski, C. Gronwall, R. Kimble, J. Krist, M. Lesser, D. Magee,
A. Martel, W. J. McCann, G. Meurer, G. Miley, M. Postman, P. Rosati,
M. Sirianni, W. Sparks, P. Sullivan, H. Tran, Z. Tsvetanov,
R. White, and R. Woodruff) and ESA

Credit: NASA, Holland Ford (JHU), the ACS Science Team and ESA Boomerang Nebula

The Boomerang Nebula - the coolest place in the Universe?

The Boomerang Nebula is a young planetary nebula and the coldest object found in the Universe so far.

The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is yet another example of how Hubble's sharp eye reveals surprising details in celestial objects.

This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows a young planetary nebula known (rather curiously) as the Boomerang Nebula. It is in the constellation of Centaurus, 5000 light-years from Earth.

Planetary nebulae form around a bright, central star when it expels gas in the last stages of its life.

The Boomerang Nebula is one of the Universe's peculiar places.

In 1995, using the 15-metre Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope in Chile, astronomers revealed that it is the coldest place in the Universe found so far.

With a temperature of -272C, it is only 1 degree warmer than absolute zero (the lowest limit for all temperatures).

Even the -270C background glow from the Big Bang is warmer than this nebula.

It is the only object found so far that has a temperature lower than the background radiation.

Keith Taylor and Mike Scarrott called it the Boomerang Nebula in 1980 after observing it with a large ground-based telescope in Australia.

Unable to see the detail that only Hubble can reveal, the astronomers saw merely a slight asymmetry in the nebula's lobes suggesting a curved shape like a boomerang.

The high-resolution Hubble images indicate that 'the Bow tie Nebula' would perhaps have been a better name.

The Hubble telescope took this image in 1998.

It shows faint arcs and ghostly filaments embedded within the diffuse gas of the nebula's smooth 'bow tie' lobes.

The diffuse bow-tie shape of this nebula makes it quite different from other observed planetary nebulae, which normally have lobes that look more like 'bubbles' blown in the gas.

However, the Boomerang Nebula is so young that it may not have had time to develop these structures.

Why planetary nebulae have so many different shapes is still a mystery.

The general bow-tie shape of the Boomerang appears to have been created by a very fierce 500 000 kilometre-per-hour wind blowing ultracold gas away from the dying central star.

The star has been losing as much as one-thousandth of a solar mass of material per year for 1500 years.

This is 10-100 times more than in other similar objects.

The rapid expansion of the nebula has enabled it to become the coldest known region in the Universe.

The image was exposed for 1000 seconds through a green-yellow filter.

The light in the image comes from starlight from the central star reflected by dust particles.

Credit: European Space Agency, NASA Nebulosa do Cisne

Id: heic0305a / opo0313a
Object: Messier 17, Omega Nebula, Swan Nebula, Omega Nebula, Horseshoe Nebula, Lobster Nebula
Type: Nebula
Instrument: WFPC2

A perfect storm of turbulent gases

Like the fury of a raging sea, this anniversary image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows a bubbly ocean of glowing hydrogen, oxygen, and sulphur gas in the extremely massive and luminous molecular nebula Messier 17.

This Hubble photograph captures a small region within Messier 17 (M17), a hotbed of star formation. M17, also known as the Omega or Swan Nebula, is located about 5500 light-years away in the Sagittarius constellation.

The release of this image commemorates the thirteenth anniversary of Hubble's launch on 24 April 1990.

The wave-like patterns of gas have been sculpted and illuminated by a torrent of ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars (which lie outside the picture to the upper left).

The glow of these patterns highlights the 3D structure of the gases.

The ultraviolet radiation is carving and heating the surfaces of cold hydrogen gas clouds.

The warmed surfaces glow orange and red in this image.

The intense heat and pressure cause some material to stream away from the surface, creating the glowing veil of even hotter green-coloured gas that masks background structures.

The pressure on the tips of the waves may trigger new star formation within them.

The image, roughly 3 light-years across, was taken on 29-30 May 1999, with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

The colours in the image represent various gases.

Red represents sulphur; green, hydrogen; and blue, oxygen.

Credit: European Space Agency, NASA, and J. Hester (Arizona State University) Nebulosa Star

Id : heic0405a / opo0410a
Object : Erupting star V838 Monocerotis
Type : Star, nebula
Instrument: ACS

"Starry Night", Vincent van Gogh's famous painting, is renowned for its bold whorls of light sweeping across a raging night sky.

Although this image of the heavens came only from the artist's restless imagination, a new picture from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope bears remarkable similarities to the van Gogh work, complete with never-before-seen spirals of dust swirling across trillions of kilometres of interstellar space.

This image, obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on February 8, 2004, is Hubble's latest view of an expanding halo of light around a distant star, named V838 Monocerotis (V838 Mon).

The illumination of interstellar dust comes from the red supergiant star at the middle of the image, which gave off a flashbulb-like pulse of light two years ago.

V838 Mon is located about 20,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros, placing the star at the outer edge of our Milky Way galaxy.

Credit: NASA, the Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI) and ESA Nebulosa N44F

Vento estelar de uma explosão de uma super-nova, na Nebulosa N44F, constelação de Dorato

Image Credit: ESA/NASA, Yael Nazé (University of Liege, Belgium) and You-Hua Chu (University of Illinois, Urbana, USA) Nebulosa olho de gato

HEIC0414: EMBARGOED UNTIL: 15:00 (CEST)/9:00 AM EDT 09 September, 2004

Photo release: Dying star creates fantasy-like sculpture of gas and dust

09-September-2004 A new study of a large number of planetary nebulae has revealed that rings, such as those seen here around the Cats Eye Nebula, are much more common that thought so far and have been found in at least one third of all planetary nebulae. Although the rings may be the key to explaining the final agonized [gasp] of the dying central star, the mystery behind the Cats Eye nebulas nested Russian doll structure remains largely unsolved.

In this detailed view from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, the so-called Cats Eye Nebula looks like the penetrating eye of the disembodied sorcerer Sauron from the film adaptation of "Lord of the Rings."

The nebula, formally catalogued NGC 6543, is every bit as inscrutable as the J.R.R. Tolkien phantom character. Although the Cat's Eye Nebula was the first planetary nebula ever to be discovered, it is one of the most complex planetary nebulae ever seen in space. A planetary nebula forms when Sun-like stars gently eject their outer gaseous layers to form bright nebulae with amazing twisted shapes.

Hubble first revealed NGC 6543's surprisingly intricate structures including concentric gas shells, jets of high-speed gas and unusual shock-induced knots of gas in 1994.

As if the Cats Eye itself isn t spectacular enough, this new image, taken with Hubbles Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), reveals the full beauty of a bull's eye pattern of eleven or more concentric rings, or shells, around the Cat's Eye. Each [ring] is actually the edge of a spherical bubble seen projected onto the sky - which is why it appears bright along its outer edge.

Observations suggest that the star ejected its mass in a series of pulses at 1500-year intervals. These convulsions created dust shells that each contains as much mass as all of the planets in our Solar System combined (but still only one-percent of the Sun's mass). These concentric shells make a layered onion-skin structure around the dying star. The view from Hubble is like seeing an onion cut in half, where each layer of skin is discernible.

Until recently, it was thought that shells around planetary nebulae were a rare phenomenon. However, Romano Corradi (Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Spain) and collaborators, in a paper published in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics in April 2004, have instead shown that the formation of these rings is likely to be the rule rather than the exception.

The bull's-eye patterns seen around planetary nebulae come as a surprise to astronomers because they had no expectation of episodes of mass loss at the end of stellar lives that repeat every 1,500 years or so. Several explanations have been proposed, including cycles of magnetic activity somewhat similar to our own Sun's sunspot cycle, the action of companion stars orbiting around the dying star, and stellar pulsations. Another school of thought is that the material is ejected smoothly from the star, and the rings are created later on due to formation of waves in the outflowing material. It will take further observations and more theoretical studies to decide between these and other possible explanations.

Approximately 1000 years ago the pattern of mass loss suddenly changed, and the Cat's Eye Nebula itself started forming inside the dusty shells. It has been expanding ever since, as can be seen by comparing Hubble images taken in 1994, 1997, 2000 and 2002. But what has caused this dramatic change? Many aspects of the process that leads a star to lose its gaseous envelope are poorly known, and the study of planetary nebulae is one of the few ways to recover information about the last few thousand years in the life of a Sun-like star.

# # #

Notes for editors
The group of astronomers involved in the April 2004, Astronomy & Astrophysics paper are: R.L.M. Corradi (Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Spain), P. Sanchez-Blazquez (Universidad Complutense, Spain), G. Mellema (Foundation for Research in Astronomy, The Netherlands), C. Giammanco (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Spain) and H.E. Schwarz (Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile)

Animations of the discovery and general Hubble Space Telescope background footage are available from

Interactive zoomable images are available at:

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

Image credit: ESA, NASA, HEIC and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

Acknowledgment: R. Corradi (Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Spain) and Z. Tsvetanov (NASA). This image was created with the help of the ESA/ESO/NASA Photoshop FITS Liberator.

For more information, please contact:
Romano Corradi
Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, La Palma, Spain
Tel: Tel: +34-922-425461
Cellular: +34-626-485736

Lars Lindberg Christensen
Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre, Garching, Germany
Tel: +49-89-3200-6306 (089 within Germany)
Cellular: +49-173-3872-621 (0173 within Germany)

Keith Noll
Hubble Heritage Team, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA
Tel: +1-410-338-1828
E-mail: Nebulosa olho de gato

Id: heic0414b
Object: NGC 6543, The Cats Eye Nebula, IRAS 17584+6638A
Type: Nebula
Instrument: Ground-based

The Cats Eye Nebula imaged with the Nordic Optical Telescope

An enormous but extremely faint halo of gaseous material surrounds the Cats Eye Nebula and is over three light-years across.

Within the past years some planetary nebulae been found to have halos like this one, likely formed of material ejected during earlier active episodes in the stars evolution - most likely some 50,000 to 90,000 years ago.

This image was taken by Romano Corradi with the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma in the Canary Islands.

The image is constructed from two narrow-band exposures showing oxygen atoms (1800 seconds, in blue) and nitrogen atoms (1800 seconds, in red).

Credit: Nordic Optical Telescope and Romano Corradi (Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Spain) Nebulosa eskimo

Id: heic9910a
Object: The Eskimo Nebula, NGC 2392, IRAS 07262+2100
Type: Nebula
Instrument: WFPC2

The Eskimo Nebula

In its first glimpse of the heavens following the successful December 1999 servicing mission, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has captured a majestic view of a planetary nebula, the glowing remains of a dying, Sun-like star.

Credit: NASA, ESA, Andrew Fruchter (STScI), and the ERO team (STScI + ST-ECF) Nebulosa Ghostly

Barnards Merope Nebula, The Pleiades

Long Caption
Id: opo0036a
Object: IC 349, 'Barnard's Merope Nebula', The Pleiades
Type: Star Cluster, Nebula
Instrument: WFPC2

Ghostly Reflections in the Pleiades

The Hubble Space Telescope has caught the eerie, wispy tendrils of a dark interstellar cloud being destroyed by the passage of one of the brightest stars in the Pleiades star cluster.

Like a flashlight beam shining off the wall of a cave, the star is reflecting light off the surface of pitch black clouds of cold gas laced with dust.

These are called reflection nebulae.

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), George Herbig and Theodore Simon (University of Hawaii). Thackerays Globules

Long Caption
Press Release
Id: opo0201a
Object: Thackeray's Globules
Type: Nebula
Instrument: WFPC2

Thackeray s Globules in IC 2944

Strangely glowing dark clouds float serenely in this remarkable and beautiful image taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. These dense, opaque dust clouds -- known

as [globules] -- are silhouetted against nearby bright stars in the busy star-forming region, IC 2944.

Astronomer A.D. Thackeray first spied the globules in IC 2944 in 1950. Globules like these have been known since Dutch-American astronomer Bart Bok first drew attention to such objects in 1947.

But astronomers still know very little about their origin and nature, except that they are generally associated with areas of star formation, called [HII regions' due to the presence of hydrogen gas. IC 2944 is filled with gas and dust that is illuminated and heated by a loose cluster of massive stars. These stars are much hotter and much more massive than our Sun.

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Turbulencia perto da estrela Eruptive

Long Caption
Press Release
Id: opo0331a

Hubble fotografa turbulencia perto da estrela Eruptive

Nesta imagem do telescopio espacial da NASA, o Hubble, vemos Uma pequena parcela de poeira junto ao gás ao redor de uma das estrelas mais maciças e mais eruptiva de nossa galáxia.

Este close-up mostra somente umas três parcelas da nebulosa inteira de Carina, que tem um diâmetro em torno de 200 anos-luz.

Localizado a 8.000 anos-luz da terra, a nebulosa pode ser vista no céu do sul a olho nú. Os nós escuros dramáticos da poeira e as estruturas complexas são esculpidas pelo vento estelar em altas velocidades.

A alta energia de radiação da estrela variável mais luminosa chama-se Eta Carinae, ou carro de Eta (situado fora do retrato).

Esta imagem mostra uma região na nebulosa de Carina entre dois conjuntos grandes de algumas das estrelas conhecidas mais maciças e as mais quentes.

Hubble Photographs Turbulent Neighborhood Near Eruptive Star
"A small portion of the rough-and-tumble neighborhood of swirling dust and gas near one of the most massive and eruptive stars in our galaxy is seen in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope image. This close-up view shows only a three light-year-wide portion of the entire Carina Nebula, which has a diameter of over 200 light-years. Located 8,000 light-years from Earth, the nebula can be seen in the southern sky with the naked eye.

Dramatic dark dust knots and complex structures are sculpted by the high-velocity stellar winds and high-energy radiation from the ultra-luminous variable star called Eta Carinae, or Eta Car (located outside the picture). This image shows a region in the Carina Nebula between two large clusters of some of the most massive and hottest known stars."

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI) Nebulosa N81

Id: opo9825a
Object: N81
Type: Nebula
Instrument: WFPC2

Massive Starbirth in N81

A NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of young, ultra-bright stars nested in their embryonic cloud of glowing gases.

The celestial maternity ward, called N81, is located 200, 000 light-years away in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a small irregular satellite galaxy of our Milky Way.

Credit: Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France), NASA/ESA Bubble Nebula

Id: opo9828e
Object: NGC 7635, the Bubble Nebula
Type: Nebula
Instrument: WFPC1

Blowing Cosmic Bubbles

This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image reveals an expanding shell of glowing gas surrounding a hot, massive star in our Milky Way Galaxy.

The shell is being shaped by strong stellar winds of material and radiation produced by the bright star at the left, which is 10 to 20 times more massive than our Sun.

Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA/ESA) Ring Nebula

Id........: opo9901a
Object....: M57, The Ring Nebula, NGC 6720, IRAS 18517+3257
Type......: Nebula
Instrument: WFPC2

Looking Down a Barrel of Gas at a Doomed Star

The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has captured the sharpest view yet of the most famous of all planetary nebulae: the Ring Nebula (M57).

In this October 1998 image, the telescope has looked down a barrel of gas cast off by a dying star thousands of years ago.

This photo reveals elongated dark clumps of material embedded in the gas at the edge of the nebula; the dying central star floating in a blue haze of hot gas. The nebula is about a light-year in diameter and is located some 2, 000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Lyra.

Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA/ESA) Circulo de estrelas

Id: opo9920a
Object: NGC 3603
Type: Star Cluster, Nebula
Instrument: WFPC2

Hubble Snapshot Captures Life Cycle of Stars

In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view.

Credit: Wolfgang Brandner (JPL/IPAC), Eva K. Grebel (Univ. Washington), You-Hua Chu (Univ. Illinois Urbana-Champaign), and NASA/ESA Swarm of Ancient Stars

Long Caption
Press Release
Id: opo9926a
Object: M80, NGC 6093
Type: Star Cluster
Instrument: WFPC2

Hubble Images a Swarm of Ancient Stars

This stellar swarm is M80 (NGC 6093), one of the densest of the 147 known globular star clusters in the Milky Way galaxy.

Located about 28, 000 light-years from Earth, M80 contains hundreds of thousands of stars, all held together by their mutual gravitational attraction.

Globular clusters are particularly useful for studying stellar evolution, since all of the stars in the cluster have the same age (about 15 billion years), but cover a range of stellar masses.

Every star visible in this image is either more highly evolved than, or in a few rare cases more massive than, our own Sun.

Especially obvious are the bright red giants, which are stars similar to the Sun in mass that are nearing the ends of their lives.

Credit: The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA/ESA) HH32

Id: opo9935a
Object: HH 32
Type: Nebula
Instrument: WFPC

Hubble Heritage Project's First Anniversary. A View of HH 32

HH 32 is an excellent example of a 'Herbig-Haro object' which is formed when young stars eject jets of material back into interstellar space.

This object, about 1, 000 light-years from Earth, is somewhat older than Hubble's variable nebula, and the wind from the bright central star has already cleared much of the dust out of the central region, thus exposing the star to direct view.

Many young stars, like the central object in HH 32, are surrounded by disks of gas and dust that form as additional material is attracted gravitationally from the surrounding nebula.

Credit: NASA/ESA/The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI) NGC 2261

Hubble's Variable Nebula (NGC 2261)

Id: opo9935c

Identificação Variável Da Nebulosa De Hubble (NGC 2261): opo9935c

A nebulosa variável de Hubble que é nomeada como o próprio nome do telescópio Hubble, pois o astrónomo americano Edwin P. Hubble, realizou alguns dos estudos mais adiantados deste objeto.

é uma nuvem de gás iluminado por R Monocerotis (R mon), da extremidade brilhante de uma estrela da nebulosa.

Observa-se densa poeira perto das sombras da estrela para fora da nebulosa e como moven-se as iluminações, causando variações notadas primeiramente por Hubble.

A estrela encontrando-se a aproximadamente 2.500 anos-luz da terra, não pode ser observada diretamente, mas somente através da luz dispersada para fora das partículas de poeira na nebulosa.

R mon acredita que tem uma massa aproximada 10x do sol, e idade de somente 300.000 anos.

É provável que as outras partes simétricas da nebulosa não estejam visíveis para nossa [linha de vista].

A equipe do heritage de Hubble fêz esta imagem das observações de R mon adquiridas por William Acender (STScI), e colaboração de Sylvia Baggett (STScI).

Hubble s variable nebula is named (like the Hubble telescope itself) after the American astronomer Edwin P. Hubble, who carried out some of the early studies of this object.

It is a fan-shaped cloud of gas anddust which is illuminated by R Monocerotis (R Mon), the bright star atthe bottom end of the nebula.

Dense condensations of dust near the starcast shadows out into the nebula, and as they move the illuminationchanges, giving rise to the variations first noted by Hubble.

The staritself, lying about 2,500 light-years from Earth, cannot be seendirectly, but only through light scattered off of dust particles in thesurrounding nebula.

R Mon is believed to have a mass of about 10 timesthat of the Sun, and to have an age of only 300,000 years.

There isprobably a symmetrical counterpart of the fan-shaped nebula on thesouthern side of the star, but it is heavily obscured from view by dustlying between this lobe and our line of sight.

The Hubble Heritage team made this image from observations of R Mon acquired by William Sparks (STScI), Sylvia Baggett (STScI) andcollaborators.

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI). NGC 2240

Long Caption
Press Release
Id: opo9935e

NGC 2440 is another planetary nebula ejected by a dying star, but it hasa much more chaotic structure than NGC 2346.

The central star of NGC2440 is one of the hottest known, with a surface temperature near200,000 degrees Celsius.

The complex structure of the surrounding nebulasuggests to some astronomers that there have been periodic oppositelydirected outflows from the central star, somewhat similar to that in NGC2346, but in the case of NGC 2440 these outflows have been episodic, andin different directions during each episode.

The nebula is also rich inclouds of dust, some of which form long, dark streaks pointing away fromthe central star. In addition to the bright nebula, which glows becauseof fluorescence due to ultraviolet radiation from the hot star, NGC 2440is surrounded by a much larger cloud of cooler gas which is invisible in ordinary light but can be detected with infrared telescopes.

NGC 2440 lies about 4,000 light-years from Earth in thedirection of the constellation Puppis.

The Hubble Heritage team made this image from observations of NGC 2440acquired by Howard Bond (STScI) and Robin Ciardullo (Penn State).

Credit: NASA/ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI). Galaxia NGC3132

Reference: opo9839
Object: NGC 3132, the Eight-Burst Nebula, the Southern Ring Nebula, IRAS 10049-4011
Instrument: WFPC2
Copyright: Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA/NASA)

NGC 3132 is a striking example of a planetary nebula.

This expanding cloud of gas, surrounding a dying star, is known to amateur astronomers in the southern hemisphere as the [Eight-Burst] or the [Southern Ring] Nebula.